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 Model 1133A  Power Sentinel™  PMU for GRID Stability Applications

      Synchronized via GPS 
      Revenue Accuracy: 0.025% 
      Power Quality: Harmonics, Flicker, Interruptions 
      Phasor Measurements for Stability & Flow Analysis C37.118 - IEEE1344
      System Time & Frequency Deviation 
      Internal Data/Event Logging 
      Two Year Warranty 


        with DSA™  Digital Signal Analysis Technology

Take a bite out of power problems and lost revenue with the Arbiter Systems®, Inc. Model 1133A Power Sentinel™ multi-function measurement unit. Combining six functions into one compact, 44 mm tall unit, the 1133A offers unprecedented accuracy, flexibility, and features.

Revenue Metering

With utility deregulation, accurate energy measurement is increasingly important. For the first time, Arbiter Systems®, Inc. combines state-of-the-art measurement techniques, proprietary EnergyDSA™ technology, and the accurate, cost-effective time synchronization of our precision GPS clock products in the Model 1133A Power Sentinel™ multi-function measurement unit. The Model 1133A brings laboratory performance to the substation, delivering unprecedented revenue accuracy of 0.025% under most conditions. Compare this to traditional watt-hour meters which are limited to an accuracy of no better than 0.1% in the lab, with increasing errors as conditions depart from the ideal (see figures).


The Model 1133A measures revenue more accurately than any meter ever before. The difference between 0.025% and 0.1% is surprising. With many transmission lines wheeling thousands of megawatts of power, the difference in accuracy of 0.075% translates to hundreds of thousands of dollars over a year's time. Even at lower power levels, improved accuracy yields significant revenue enhancement.

Power Quality Monitoring

The Model 1133A's features only begin with its outstanding accuracy in energy measurement. Our proprietary EnergyDSA™ digital signal analysis algorithms provide you with more information than ever before. You can measure harmonics and K-factor, flicker, interruptions, and log data by time interval, or record out-of-limit events with time of occurrence. You can set limits on any quantity. Also, an alarm contact may be activated, or a dial-up modem call initiated.

System Control and Monitoring

The Model 1133A measures system (absolute) phase angle, system frequency deviation, and system time deviation. See the white paper Absolute Phase.Phasor measurement data in accordance with IEEE Standard 1344, at a rate of 20/second, is standard. This data allows for sophisticated, real-time monitoring and control of stability and power flow is now practical. These measurements are made possible with the Model 1133A's internal GPS synchronization.

Synchronization

A built-in Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver synchronizes your Model 1133A within 1 µs of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which may also be converted to your local time. With synchronization, revenue data can be accumulated in time slots as short as one minute. Other substation equipment, such as digital fault recorders, solid-state relays, remote terminal units, and programmable logic controllers, may be synchronized with the standard IRIG-B unmodulated timecode output. This output has sufficient power to drive numerous loads, for example, 40 Schweitzer™ SEL-321 relays.

Data and Event Logging

Sixteen megabytes of flash memory are provided standard, upgradable to 32 MB. This non-volatile memory can record revenue data, power quality, internally-detected faults, alarms, events, and external events. Four optically-isolated event inputs may be used to monitor external events.

Technology

Arbiter Systems' many years of experience making accurate measurements of ac signals and providing state-of-the-art timing equipment lies at the heart of the Model 1133A Power Sentinel™ revolutionary performance. For example, built-in, real-time autocalibration eliminates many sources of error which would otherwise degrade accuracy. This process measures the output of an internal calibration source, time-multiplexed along with the input signals. A complete set of calibration
measurements is executed once each second. By passing the calibration signal through the same measurement circuits as the input signals, drift in component values, temperature sensitivities, and many other errors are completely removed.
This design approach minimizes the number of components that can affect accuracy. Therefore, we can afford to use the best available components in those critical applications. Accuracy is (in a simplified fashion) the sum of the imperfections of all of the components that can degrade performance; therefore, by using a small number of highly-accurate parts, accuracy is maximized. This is a simple idea, but implementing it properly requires years of experience.
See the white paper What is Accuracy? 
Of course, all of the accuracy in the world means nothing if the resulting signal cannot be processed with equal or better performance. Our proprietary EnergyDSA™ Digital Signal Analysis, an optimized version of the PowerDSA™ analysis developed over the last decade and in use in our Model 931A Power System Analyzer for several years, delivers this performance. We have optimized EnergyDSA™ analysis for the specific requirements of revenue metering and
on-line power analysis: speed, accuracy and low cost. Our EnergyDSA™ algorithms measure signals with accuracies characterized not in percent, but in parts per million.
                                            Model 1133A Specifications
Input Configuration:
              3-element, 2½-element, 2-element, selectable
              2-element, 1½-element, and 1-element, selectable
Voltage:
           Range (3Ø/1Ø)   0 to 69, 120, 240, or 480 Vrms, selectable
                                   (phase-to-phase for 2 element; phase-to-neutral for 2½ and 3 element)
               Overrange   88, 175, 350 or 700 Vrms, nominal
Current:
           Range (3Ø/1Ø)   2.5, 5, 10 or 20 Arms, selectable, per element
               Overrange   2.9, 5.9, 11.7, or 23.5 Arms, nominal
                                   (maximum continuous input current: 20 Arms per element)
VA, W, VAR:
           Range   Product of rated voltage and current ranges and number of elements (2½)
                         (3Ø)  and 1½ (1Ø) element, use 3 and 1, respectively)
     Compensation:           CT and PT 
      Both magnitude and phase compensation, CT with 12 point nonlinear interpolation
     Transformer:   Both iron and copper compensation
Frequency Range:
                      45 to 65 Hz, for specified accuracy
           Harmonics To 3 kHz
Inputs:
           Connections  Removable screw-clamp terminal block, accepting 0.2 to 4 mm2
                                 (AWG 24 to 10) solid or stranded conductors
           Insulation
                       400 volts, nominal, to neutral/chassis, surge voltage class III 
                       600 volts, nominal, to neutral/chassis, surge voltage class II
                       Contact factory for more detailed information
Interface:
    Operator:
           Status LEDs 
                       Operate (green)
                       Time Set (green)
                       Alarm (red)
                       Fault (red)
           Display
                       2 x 20 character LCD display
           Keyboard
                       8 key for status and setup
Communications:
           Serial 
                 Port 1 
                        RS-232 (1133opt10)
                        RS-422/485 half-duplex (1133opt11)
                        Modem (V.34bis, 33.6k) (1133opt12)
                 Port 2 
                        RS-232 (1133opt20)
                        RS-422/485 half-duplex (1133opt21)
                        Modem (V.34bis, 33.6k) (1133opt22)
              Connectors RJ-11 modular; two
           Ethernet 
                        One, 10Base-T per IEEE 802.3i
              Connector RJ-45 modular
Protocols:
           Proprietary 
                      PowerSentinelCSV (PSCSV)
           Standard 
                      DNP3.0, MODBUS, PQ-DIF
Programmable Contact Outputs:
           Type and Number 
                              Form C (SPDT), four (4) sets
           Connections
           Pluggable 12-pole 5 mm terminal strip, with four, 3-pole mating connectors included
           Rating
                              250 Vac/125 Vdc, 8 A maximum, 2000 VA/150 W maximum
           Isolation
                              4000 Vrms for 1 minute to chassis
                              Optional KYZ (solid state) contact isolation: 3750 Vrms Input/Output
           Functions, Selectable 
                              Programmable Load Control, with preset times or via system interface
                              Fault Fail-safe (faulted with power off)
                              Alarm Fail-safe
                              Out-of-Lock Fail-safe
                              One Pulse per Hour; contacts closed for one minute at top of hour
                              Optional KYZ contacts
                              Other Functions, as required
Event Inputs:
           Type and Number 
                    Four, optically-isolated 24 to 240 Vdc (may be configured for 5 volt logic level)
           Connections 
                            Pluggable 8-pole 5 mm terminal strip, with four, 2 pole mating connectors
           Isolation
                            4000 Vrms for 1 minute to chassis
           Resolution
                            1 µs
Flash Memory Data Storage:
      Capacity 
                    32 Megabytes standard; number of records stored depends on data items
                    selected. See Operation Manual for record length and capacity calculations
      Data
             Selectable from all functions measured and totalized by the Model 1133A;
             each record is stored with a time tag
      Data Retention 
                    Indefinite; no power or battery is required to retain data
      Storage Rate 
                    Selectable; default is 15 minutes. Other intervals as short as one minute may be 
                    selected. Event data stored upon occurrence.
      Lifetime
                    100,000 storage cycles minimum
Accuracy Specifications:
Note: Accuracy specifications include all sources of uncertainty. Except as noted, specifications apply for the full operating range, including temperature (-10° to +50° C), line voltage, input range including specified overrange, power factor, input frequency, and drifts over a one-year calibration interval. Specifications assume synchronization to GPS and operation in 3-element mode or in a well-balanced system where imbalance does not degrade accuracy. 
Accuracy:
           Watts, Wh
                          0.025% of reading, 10% of range or greater and PF > 0.2
                          0.005% of VA for PF < 0.2
              Underrange 
                          0.0025% of range, below 10% of range
           VA, VAh
                          Same as W, Wh except no PF effect
           VAR, VARh
                          Same as W, Wh except replace PF with (1 - PF2)0.5
           Vrms
                          0.02% of reading or 0.002% range, whichever is greater
           Arms
                          0.03% of reading or 0.003% range, whichever is greater
           V2h
                          0.04% of reading or 0.004% range, whichever is greater
           A2h
                          0.06% of reading or 0.006% range, whichever is greater
           Phase Angle, Ø 
                          0.01°, phase-to-phase or voltage-to-current, 10% of range minimum
           Power Factor
                          0.0002 • sin (Ø), 10% of range minimum
           Harmonics
                          0.05% THD or 5% of reading, whichever is greater
           Frequency
                          < 1 ppm (0.0001%) of reading, 50 or 60 Hz nominal, plus timebase error
           System Phase
                          0.03° plus [timebase error • 360° • frequency]
           System Time
                          1 µs plus timebase error
           Event Inputs
                          ±10 µs (typical)
Power Quality:
Harmonics Measurement:
           Standard
                         Per IEC 6000-4-7, 100 ms overlapping data window
           Measurements 
                         THD, K-factor, rms harmonic current and voltage, rms harmonic current and 
                         voltage with K-factor compensation (each harmonic magnitude is multiplied
                         by the square of the harmonic number before summing), individual
                         magnitude and phase
           Logged Data 
                         Selectable, may be regularly logged or registered; or event-logged when
                         user-specified limits are exceeded
Interruptions:
           Logged Data 
                        Selectable, may be regularly logged or registered; or event-logged when 
                        user-specified limits are exceeded
Flicker:
           Standard
                        Per IEC 61000-4-15, Pst and Instantaneous
           Logged Data 
                        Selectable, may be regularly logged or registered; or event-logged when 
                        user-specified limits are exceeded
Limit Alarms:
           Functions 
                     Upper or lower limits may be set on most measured functions. Limits may also
                     be set on maximum imbalance
           Output
                     Via system interface and display or contact closure
System Control and Monitoring:
     System Time, Phase and Frequency:
           System Time 
                                   Unlimited accumulation with ±1 µs resolution
           Frequency
                                   7 digits, xx.xxxxx Hz
           System Phase 
                                   0 to 360° with 0.01° resolution
           Effect of DC & Harmonics 
                                   None; Rejected by narrowband digital filtering
     Phasors:
           Standard 
                   Per IEEE Standard 1344 or PSCSV C37.118
           Rate
                   20 measurements/second up to 50 measurement / second
Synchronization:
     General:
           Tracking
                       GPS-L1 (1575.42 MHz); 8 channel (tracks up to 8 satellites)
           Acquisition 
                       2 minutes typical
           Accuracy
                       UTC-USNO ±1 µs (only need 1 satellite with correct position)
           Out-of-Lock 
                       Via system interface and status
             Indication 
                       Display; optionally via contact closure
 Antenna Characteristics:
           Mounting
                       0.75 inch NPT pipe thread (1 inch - 14 marine type) mount
           Dimensions
                       77.5 dia. x 66.2 mm (3.05 x 2.61 inch)
           Weight
                       170g (6.0 oz.)
           Connections 
                       F-type
           Cable
                       15 m (50 ft) included; longer cables optionally available
Synchronization Output:
           Type 
                 One; IRIG-B000 or IRIG-B003 per IEEE Std. 1344 (unmodulated or level-shift);
                200 mA peak; pluggable 5 mm terminal strip with mating connector, two-pole
Timebase Error:
           GPS locked 
                       Less than 1 µs, when locked to at least one satellite with correct position
           Unlocked 
                       10 ppm, typical, after being locked for 10 minutes minimum (< 1 second/day
                        unlocked, typical)
Certifications and Approvals:
     Compliance to IEC-687 International Standard for Alternating Current
     Static Watthour Meter for Active Energy 
     Certificate of Conformance to NIST 
Power Requirements:
      Voltage 
              85 to 264 Vac, 47 to 63 Hz or 120 to 275 Vdc, 5 VA typical
      Input
              Terminal strip with fuse; surge withstand per ANSI C37-90.1 and IEC801-4 std.
General:
     Physical:
           Size
                   1 RU (430 mm W x 44 mm H) rack mount or tabletop; 260 mm deep FMS.
                   Rack mounts included
           Weight 
                   2 kg (4.5 lbs), net
                   5 kg (11 lbs), shipping
Environment:
           Temperature, Operating 
                         Standard: -10° to +50° C
           Temperature, Non-operating 
                         -40° to +85° C
           Humidity
                         Non-condensing
 

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